Indus Valley Civilization or Harapan Civilization

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Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harrapan  Civilization. It was dated from 5000 -1500 BC. IT was situated on the bank of river Indus. The important sites were Harrapa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Dholvaria etc.

This was based on the urbanized model and it creates curiosity amongst the archaeologist and scientist with regards to their urbanization which makes a perfect model in modern times also.

Township

Citadel was an essential part of the town planning system. Higher towns have all the important buildings like offices or the buildings of the ruling classes. The lower town was where the common people reside.

The great bath was also situated on the citadel. It measures 11.88*7.01*2.43. It has room for changing clothes. Water was drawn from a large well in an adjacent room and an outlet from the corner of the bath led to a drain.

The largest building is granary 45.71m and 15.23 wide. It was also on the citadel. Harrapan was using burnt bricks while Mesopotamia and Egypt were using baked bricks. The drainage system of Mohenjodaro is very impressive. Each house has is its own separate bathroom and courtyard. The roads are in grid pattern intersects each other at 90*

Agriculture

In those times Sind was used to be the fertile land. It supplied timber for baking bricks. The Indus people cultivated wheat, barley rai, peas. seasum and mustard were also grown. Foodgrains were stored in granaries. Indus people were the pioneer in cultivating cotton. Harrapan in Gujrat produced rice.

Animals

Harrapan people domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes goats, sheep and pigs were domesticated. Asses and camels were the beasts of burden. In Harappan Elephants were domesticated.

Metals

Bronze was made by mixing copper with tin and they occasionally do by mixing arsenic with copper. Jewelleries were made of silver , gold and precious stones.

Trade and Commerce

They had commercial linkages with Rajasthan, Afghanistan and Iran .Tigris and Euphrates basin were one of them.

Sculpture

Seals

Most seals are square, triangular, rectangular and circular seals were also used. Pictoral Inscriptions are found in most of the seals. They have figures of a unicorn, humped bull, rhinoceros, tiger, elephant,  buffalo, bison, goat mark our, ibex, crocodile etcThese seals were used in commercial purposes.

Bronze

It was the prominent metal that was found in that civilization. Bronze statues were made by using the Lost Wax Technique. In Lost Wax Technique wax figures are coated with clay and allowed to dry. The wax is then poured out and liquid metal is poured inside the hole and allow it to take shape. Once it is solidified the clay coat is removed.

End Of Indus Valley Civilisation

Sutlej and Yamuna started to move away from the Saraswati river which causes loss of water supply to the region. Sudden closure of trade with Mesopotamia is another reason for its collapse. Due to this many craftsmen were unemployed. The soil quality must have degraded as a result of that people were starved to death.

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